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Englische Vokabeln aus dem Finanzbereich

assets anything owned by a company (cash investments, buildings, machines) that can be used to produce goods or pay liabilities
Bookkeeping writing down the details of transactions (debits and credits)
accounting keeping financial records, recording income and expenditure, valuing assets and liabilities, and so on
managerial accounting preparing budgets and other financial reports necessary for management
cost accounting working out the unit cost of products, including materials, labour and all other expenses
tax accounting calculating an individual‘s or a company‘s liability for tax
auditing inspection and evaluation of accounts by a second set of accountants
Balance sheet (UK) Statement of financial position (USA) a tabular statement of both sides of a set of accounts in which the debit and credit balances add up as equal.
Profit and Loss statement (UK) A financial statement that summarizes the revenues, costs and expenses incurred during a specific period of time - usually a fiscal quarter or year. 
Stock (UK) / Inventory (US) Products that are stored in warehouses, Waren- oder Lagerbestand
gearing (UK) / leverage (US) Fremdkapitalaufnahme
shareholder / stockholder a company‘s owner
revenue, earnings, incomes all the money received by a company during a given period
liability all the money that a company will have to pay to someone else in the future, including taxes, debts, and interest and mortgage payments
turnover the amount of business done by a company over a year
deprecation the reductions in value of a fixed asset during the years it is in use (charged against profits)
debtors (UK), accounts receiveable (US) sums of money owed by customers for goods or services purchased on credit
creditors (UK), accounts payable (US) sums of money owed to suppliers for purchased made on credit
overheads (UK), overhead (US) the various expenses of operating a business that cannot be charged to any one product, process or department - Fixkosten
Fixed assets any long-term asset, as a building, tract of land, or patent - Anlagevermögen
current assets items which are much shorter term. They are more liquid than fixed assets. For example raw materials. - Umlaufvermögen
Long term liabilities can be loans or mortgages for machinery or premises - Langfristige Verbindlichkeiten
current liabilities these are amounts that a business OWES a business which must be repaid within the next few months. Essentially these are bills that are due very shortly, usually less than one year. - kurzfristige Verbindlichkeiten
Retained profit Money earned in a former period by a firm and was kept on the side for later investments or threats. - Gewinnrücklagen
Income Statement is a list of all money that coms into the company - Erfolgsrechnung
fiscal taxation by the state - Besteuerung
premises a tract of land including its buildings - Betriebsgelände
Sole trader is a type of business entity which is owned and run by one individual and where there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business. All profits and all losses accrue to the owner (subject to taxation). 
General Partnership ususally for accountants, solicitors (lawyers) and doctors. The partners carry unlimited liability for all debts with their whole fortune. All partners take part in the mangement of the firm.
Limited Partnership some partners are allowed to a limited liability, that means that their personal assets can't be claimed by the partnership's creditors. Such limited (or sleeping) partner can't take part in the management, which is run by the ordinary partners. 
Joint stock companies General: are incorporated, which means that they are artifical legal entities that can conclude contracts, sue and can be sued. They must be registered by the Registrar of Companies. Shares are sold to raise capital. The shareholder elect a board directors (Vorstand) who runs the company on their behalf. Profits are distributed to the owners in the form of dividends. In the US such companies are called corporations.
Parent company / holding company is formed for the special purpose of administering more than half of the share capital of one or more other companies, called subsidiaries. Its a firm operating a business of its own while holding more than half of the shares of a subsidiary company is the latter‘s parent company. - Mutterkonzern
Subsidiary is an entity that is controlled by a separate higher entity - Tochtergesellschaft
Mergers occurs when two companies form a new entity. - Fusionen
Aquisitions take-overs, where the stronger company takes control over the other one. - Übernahmen
Hostile / unsocilited take-over

is an attempt to take another company over although the other company's board of directors or the shareholder are against the take-over. - feindliche Übernahme

liquidate when assets are getting sold - Liquidierung
To be Bankrupt When a company can't pay its debts anymore. - Verb = Bankrott sein
bankruptcy when a company goes bankrupt, it means that it can't pay its current liabilities. Nomen = der Bankrott
overdraft an arrangement to withdraw more money from an account than you have placed in it. - Überziehungskredit
to overdraw to take more money from your bank account than you have paid in. Verb = Bankkonto überziehen.
mortgage a long-term loan to buy somewhere to live, a house. - Hypothek
collateral something that acts as a security or a guarantee for a debt or for a loan. - Sicherheit
wage money earned for a weeks manual work. Lohn, den die Arbeiter erhalten.
salary money paid for a months (professional) work. Gehalt der Angestellten.
maturity the date when a loan becomes repayable. - Fälligkeitsdatum
principal the money on which basis interest and returns are calculated conerning a loan. - Kapitalbetrag
deposit money placed in banks and other savings institutions. - Einlagen
yield The amount of how much money a loan pays, expressed as a percentage. - Ertrag
to underwrite to guarantee to buy all the new shares that a company issues, if they can not be sold to the public. - Eine Garantie Aktien zu kaufen.
solvency The ability to pay liabilities when they become due. - Zahlungsfähigkeit
rebate part of payment that is officially given back (e.g. from taxes). - Rückerstattung
instalments a regular part of payments of debts - Tilgungsbeträge
stake a share in a business - ein Anteil
to subsidy money given to producers to allow them to sell their products cheaply. - Subventionieren
to owe when you have to pay your liabilities, you owe money to a company. - Geld schulden.
branch office a retail location where a bank offers a wide array of services. - Bankfiliale
clerk / cashier a person employed in a bank. - Bankangestellter
counter the place where you can pay in money into your account, or to withdraw money from it. - Schalter
pay-in slip a form that you use when you put money into your bank account. - Einzahlschein
withdrawal-slip a pre-printed form which you have to fill out when you want to get money from your account. - Auszahlungsschein um Geld abzuheben.
bank-transfer slip a form by which you can transfer money from your bank to another in order to pay your bills. - Überweisungsschein
bank statement a document setting out what has been paid into and ouf of your bank account. - Kontoauszug
debit card a plastic card issued to bank customers for use in cash despensers / ATMs. - Bankkarte, EC Card
key pad a small set of buttons for operating a ATM. - Tastenfeld
cash dispenser / ATM a computerized machine that allows bank customers to withdraw money. - Geldautomat
Savings accounts / deposit accounts is an account that pays interest, but usually can't be used for paying checks and on which notice is often required to withdraw money. - Sparkonto
current account / checking account is an account that generally pays  lillte or no interest, but allows the holder to withdraw his cash without any restrictions - Girokonto
to withdraw money to take out money from an account. - Geld abheben
standing orders are instructions to a bank to pay fixed sums of money to certain people or organizations at stated times. - Dauerauftrag
direct debit a single order to allow a commercial entity to charge directly to one's bank account for irregular payments. - Einzugsermächtigung
loan is an amount of money borrowed from a bank for a certain length of time, usually for a specific purpose. - Kredit
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